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StressEraser in the News

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CNN Health Blog "The Chart" by Amanda Enayati
"I appreciated the StressEraser’s small size and portability; I used it as I lay in bed and also took it out with me on a few occasions to use when I had a free moment."

StressErasers Donated to Japan's Earthquake Relief Effort
Learn more about the trauma program at Konan Women's University in Kobe, Japan.

StressEraser recommended by CBS Interactive Business Network's Presenting on the Go.
"Perfect for a bit of calm before the presentation storm."

StressEraser leads off the CBS Early Show's "Health Watch" segment.
"This is a really cool product... A good drug-free way for you to de-stress." - Frances Largeman-Roth

 StressEraser receives top score in HEALTH Magazine stress feature.
"Worth it if you really have trouble calming yourself down."- Laura Leu

StressEraser in the spotlight on Philip Reed's "GolfGadgets" video segment.
"Do this for 8 to 10 minutes and it will relax you for even the 4 or 5 hours that it takes to play golf." You Tube

StressEraser Featured on "The Rachael Ray Show."
"For a lot of people, especially people who are very stressed out, this could be a very nice thing." - Dr. Donnica Moore

StressEraser Selected for the Celebrity Gift Bag at the ESPY Awards.
Photo: IndyCar champion Helio Castroneves chills out at the photo shoot.

StressEraser Featured on "The View."
“The StressEraser helps synchronize your breath with your heart rate. We should all be using this to reduce stress!” - Elisabeth Hasselbeck

StressEraser Awards

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Seal of Approval, awarded by the American Institute of Stress

Best Self-Monitoring Health Initiative or Device, awarded by the National Wellness Prevention & Fitness Conference

Technology Innovation of the Year, awarded by Frost & Sullivan

The Best of Gadget Lab, awarded by WIRED Magazine (9 out of 10 rating)

HRV Biofeedback Literature References



The following list of scientific reference material includes the peer-reviewed literature that is at the core of the StressEraser relaxation theory.  Specifically, the studies include published research in the key StressEraser-oriented biofeedback areas of Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA), Parasympathetic Tone, Vagus Nerve Activity, and Proper Breathing.

Index


  1. Recommended Books
  2. Stress & Health
  3. Heart Rate Variability & Stress
  4. Parasympathetic Tone & Vagal Activity
  5. Proper Breathing & Parasympathetic/Vagal Activity
  6. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia & Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback
  7. Other

Recommended Books


Benson H (1975). The Relaxation Response . New York: William Morrow.

Fried R, & Grimaldi, J (1993). The psychology and physiology of breathing in behavioral medicine, clinical psychology and psychiatry. New York: Plenum.

Kabat-Zinn J (2005). Coming to Our Senses: Healing Ourselves and the World Through Mindfulness. 1st ed. New York: Hyperion.

Lehrer PM, Woolfolk RL & Sime, WE (2007). Principles and Practice of Stress Management, 3rd edition. New York: Guilford.

McEwen BS (2002). The End of Stress As We Know It. Washington, DC: John Henry Press.

Sapolsky RM (1998) Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide To Stress, Stress Related Diseases, and Coping. 2nd Rev Ed. WH Freeman.

Stress & Health


Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D & Miller GE (2007). Psychological stress and disease, JAMA. 298 (14), 1685–1688.

Franco GP, de Barros AL, Nogueira-Martins LA, Michel JL (2003). Stress influence on genesis, onset and maintenance of cardiovascular diseases: literature review. J Adv Nurs, 43:548–54

Gevirtz R (2000). Physiology of Stress, Kenney D, Carlson J, Sheppard J, & McGuigan FJ (Eds.), Stress and Health: Research and Clinical Applications. Sydney, Australia: Harwood Academic Publishers.

McEwen BS (2007). Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain, Physiol. Rev. 87: 873–904.

McEwen BS (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals NY Acad. Sc i. 840:33–44.

Schneiderman N, McCabe P, & Baum A (1992). Stress and Disease Processes, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Segerstrom SC, Miller GE (2004). Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull, 130(4): 601–630.

Takkouche B, et al (2001). Stress and susceptibility to the common cold. Epidemiology, vol. 11, p.345.

Tracey KJ (2007). Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway J. Clin. Invest. 117 :289–296.

Weinstein, R (2004). The Stress Effect. New York: Penguin Books,

Heart Rate Variability & Stress


Berntson GG & Cacioppo JT in Malik, M & Camm, AJ (2004). Heart rate variability: Stress and psychiatric conditions. Dynamic Electrocardiography . (pp. 57-64). New York: Blackwell/Futura.

Cacioppo JT, Berntson GG, Malarkey WB, et al (1998). Autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune responses to psychological stress: The reactivity hypothesis, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 664–673.

Delaney JP & Brodie DA (2000). Effects of short-term psychological stress on the time and frequency domains of heart-rate variability. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 91, 515–24.

Fuller BF (1992). The effects of stress-anxiety and coping styles on heart rate variability. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 12(1): 81–6.

Porges SW (1995). Cardiac vagal tone: a physiological index of stress. Neurosci Biobehav, 19(2):225–233.

Parasympathetic Tone & Vagal Activity


Eckberg D (1983). Human sinus arrhythmia as an index of vagal cardiac outflow, Journal of Applied Physiology, 54(4): 961&966.

Fouad FM et al (1984). Assessment of parasympathetic control of heart rate by a noninvasive method. American Journal of Physiology, 246:H838&H842.

Julu PO (1992). A linear scale for measuring vagal tone in man., Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology, 12(2): 109&115.

Katona P et al (1975). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: noninvasive measure of parasympathetic cardiac control, Journal of Applied Physiology, 39(5): 801&805.

Porges SW ( 2007). The polyvagal perspective. Biological Psychology 74, 116&143.

Proper Breathing & Parasympathetic/Vagal Activity


Bernardi L, Gabutti A, Porta C, Spicuzza L (2001). Slow breathing reduces chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, and increases baroreflex sensitivity. Journal of Hypertension, 19(12):2221–9.

Eckberg DL et al (1980). Phase relationship between normal human respiration and baroreflex responsiveness. Journal of Physiology, (1980) 304: 489–502.

Poyhonen M et al (2004). The effect of carbon dioxide, respiratory rate and tidal volume on human heart rate variability. ACTA Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48: 93–101.

Schipke JD et al (1999). Effect of respiration rate on short-term heart rate variability. Journal of Clinical Basic Cardiology, 2: 92.

Strauss-Blasche, Moser M et al. (2000). Relative timing of inspiration and expiration affects respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 27: 601–606.

Tripathi Lt. Col. KK (2004). Respiration And heart rate variability: A review with special reference to its application In aerospace medicine. Indian Journal of Aerospace Medicine, 48(1): 64–75

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia & Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback


Bernardi L, Porta C, Spicuzza L, et al (2002). Slow breathing increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation, 105: 143–145.

Del Pozo JM, Gevirtz RN, et al. (2004). Biofeedback treatment increases heart rate variability in patients with known coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 147 (3).

Gevirtz RN & Lehrer P (2003). Resonant frequency heart rate biofeedback. In M.S. Schwartz & Andrasik (Eds) Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide (pp. 245–250).

Gevirtz RN (2000). Resonant frequency training to restore autonomic homeostasis for treatment of psychophysiological disorders. Biofeedback, 27 (4), 7–9.

Giardino ND, Chan L, et al (2004). Combined heart rate variability and pulse oximetry biofeedback for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: preliminary findings. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29 (2): 121–33.

Humphreys P & Gevirtz RN (2000) Treatment of recurrent abdominal pain: components analysis of four treatment protocols. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nuitrition, 31 (1), 47–51.

Karavidas MK, Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E et al (2007). Preliminary results of an open label study of heart rate variability biofeedback for the treatment of major depression. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 32 : 19–30.

Lehrer PM (2007). Biofeedback training to increase heart rate variability. In Lehrer PM, Woolfolk RL & Sime WE (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Stress Management, 3rd edition (227–248). New York: Guilford.

Lehrer PM, Carr RE, Smetankine A, Vaschillo E, Peper, E & Porges SW (1997). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia versus neck/trapezius EMG and incentive inspirometry biofeedback for asthma: A pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 22, 95–109.

Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E & Vaschillo B (2000). Resonant frequency biofeedback training to increase cardiac variability: rationale and manual for training. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeed, 25: 177–191.

Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, Lu SE, et al (2004). Biofeedback treatment for asthma. Chest, 126(2): 352–361.

Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, Lu S-E, Eckberg DL, Edelberg R, et al (2003). Heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(5), 796–805.

Nolan RP, Kamath MV, et al (2005). Heart rate variability biofeedback as a behavioral neurocardiac intervention to enhance vagal heart rate control. American Heart Journal, 149 (6).

Song HS & Lehrer PM (2003). The effects of specific respiratory rates on heart rate and heart rate variability. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 13–24, 2003.

Vaschillo E, Lehrer P, Rishe N, Konstantinov M (2002). Heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for assessing baroreflex function: A preliminary study of resonance in the cardiovascular system. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 27, 1–27.

Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B & Lehrer P (2004). Heartbeat synchronizes with respiratory rhythm only under specific circumstances. Chest, 126, 1385–1386.

Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B & Lehrer P (2006). Characteristics of resonance in heart rate variability stimulated by biofeedback, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Vol. 31 (2), 129–142.

Other


Bonnet MH & Arand D (1998). Heart rate variability in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60(5), 610-615.

Cohen HJ, Benjamin et al (2000). Autonomic dysregulation in panic disorder and in post-traumatic stress disorder: application of power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability at rest and in response to recollection of trauma or panic attacks. Psychiatry Research , 96 (1): 1–13.

Dekker JM, Schouten EG, Lootwijk P, Pool J, Swenne CA, & Kromhout D (1997). Heart rate variability from short electrocardiographic recordings predicts mortality from all causes in middle-aged and elderly men. The Zutphen study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145, 899–908.

Dusek JA et al (2008). Genomic counter-stress changes induced by the relaxation response. PLoS ONE 3(7): e2576, DOI:10.1371/ journal.pone.0002576

Gorman JM & Sloan RP (2000). Heart rate variability in depressive and anxiety disorders. American Heart Journal, 140(4 Suppl): 77–83.

Hall M , Vasko R, Buysse DJ, Ombao H, Chen Q, Cashmere JD, Kupfer DJ, Thayer JF (2004). Acute stress affects heart rate variability during sleep. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 56–62.

Jacobs GD (2001). The physiology of mind-body interactions: the stress response and the relaxation response. J Altern Complement Med 2001;7. Suppl 1:S83–S92.

Kranitz L & Lehrer P (2003). Biofeedback applications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiology in Review, 12, 177–181.

Lehrer PM, Carrington P (2002). Basic tools: relaxation, meditation, stress management. In Moss D, McGrady A, Davies T, & Wickramasekera I, (Eds.). Handboook of mind-body medicine in primary care: Behavioral and physiological tools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mashin V & Mashina M (2000). Analysis of the heart rate variability in negative functional states in the course of psychological relaxation sessions. Human Physiology, 26(4), 420–425.

Porges SW (1997). Emotion: An evolutionary by-product of the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system. In Carter CS, Kirkpatrick B, & Lederhendler II (Eds.), The Integrative Neurobiology of Affiliation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807, 62–77.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Maiti AK. (1994). Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 59, No. 2/3, 167–186.

Ryan, M & Gevirtz R (2004). Biofeedback-based psychophysiological treatment in a primary care setting: an initial feasibility study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 29(2), 79–93.

Thayer JF & Lane RD (2007). The role of vagal function in the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Biological Physiology, 74, 224–242.

Thayer JF, Friedman BH, Borkovec TD (1996). Autonomic characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder and worry. Biological Psychiatry 39: 255–266.

Virtanen R et al (2003). Anxiety and hostility are associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity and increased beat-to-beat blood pressure variability. Psychosom Med, 65(5):751–6.

Williams JE, Nieto FJ, Sanford CP, et al. (2001). Effects of an angry temperament on coronary heart disease risk: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 230–235.